F-205 ARROW | INTERCEPTOR
The F-205 Arrow is a delta-winged interceptor aircraft, designed and built by NW Canadian Defense Solutions, as the culmination of a design study that actually began in 1953. The NW Canadian designated CF-205 is considered to be both an advanced technical and aerodynamic achievement for the Canadian aviation industry as was the original CF-105. The Arrow is used in New Hayesalian service as a primary interceptor aircraft for national defence.
The CF-205 Arrow Mk2 held the promise of Mach 3+ speeds at altitudes exceeding 50,000 ft (15,000 m), and is intended to serve as the NW Canadian Military and the New Hayesalian Air Force as its primary interceptor in the 2010s and beyond.
The F-205 Arrow is a twin-seat, twin-engine aircraft that is optimized for rapid interception and strike operations over extremely long distances.
It is approximately 77 ft 9 in (23.71 m) in length, has a wingspan of 50 feet (15.24 m), and has Max takeoff weight: 68,605 lb (31,120 kg) with internal stores only.
Composites are used extensively throughout the CF-205 Arrow, Bismaleimide (BMI) and composite epoxy material make up the majority of the structural composites in the CF-205 Arrow. The Epoxy material used is mainly structural nano-composites, carbon nanotube reinforced Epoxy.
The concern for minimizing radar cross-section (RCS) and drag is also shown by the provision of two tandem main weapons bays in the centre fuselage, between the engine nacelles. Each is estimated to be between 4.9-5.1 m long. The main bays are augmented by bulged, triangular-section bays at the wing root.
Positional and anti-collision lighting (including strobes) are mounted on the wings, and are compatible with stealth features of the design. Located on the aircraft at critical positions for night flight operations, he low voltage electroluminescent formation lights are (on both sides of the forward fuselage under the chin, on the outside of both vertical stabilizers, and on the tip of the upper left and right wings). on the Located by the butterfly doors that cover the air refueling receptacle, there are similar air refueling lights.
The CF-205 Arrow is powered by two T/W=10 17,000 kilograms (37,000 lb) WS-15 class high thrust turbofan engines fitted with limited modified Thrust Vector Controlled (TVC) nozzles. The engines generate a large volume of thrust and posses a complex automation system, to facilitate flight modes such as extra maneuverability.
Each engine is capable of independently vector its thrust upwards, downward or side to side. Vectoring one engine up with the other one down can produce a twisting force. Therefore the Arrow is one of the first fifth generation fighters with full 3-D thrust vectoring along all three aircraft axes: pitch, yaw and roll. The CF-205’s engines and nozzles are recessed. The Vectoring nozzles can redirect thrust through the large exhaust channels. This provides for greater maneuverability than a non-vectoring aircraft but not full capacity as conventional vectoring designs. The recessing of the engines and nozzles was to to lower the thermal detection and intercept abilities of hostile systems.
The Arrow also incorporates a Leading Edge Vortex Controller (LEVCON) to increase its maneuverability and work works in conjunction with the 3-D thrust vectoring to achieve maximum maneuverability for this airframe.
The Arrow may have lower supercruise speed (yet greater range) and less agility than the F-22 Raptor or PAK FA, but it does have larger weapons bays and carry more fuel. The Arrow is one of the first operational combat aircraft that carries sufficient fuel to supercruise throughout its missions, doubling its sortie rate. These engines also incorporate infrared and RCS reduction measures discussed under Stealth Features.
The Arrow incorporates an advanced fly-by-optics (FBO) flight control system, which fully integrates the entire aircraft. A fly-by-optics flight control system, which substitutes optical fibers for wires, allows data to be transferred faster and with immunity to electromagnetic disturbance such as Electromagnetic Pulse effects.
Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. The CF-205 Arrowcan use Instrument Landing System (ILS) for landing in poor weather. The aircraft also features an advanced ground proximity warning system which is enhanced and fully integrated into the cockpit displays and controls. The Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) provides the Link 16 data link.
The navigation system is fully integrated and fully supports cruising and steering through global satellite positioning system aid to the onboard autopilot. The aircraft is equipped with an ASN-131 radar altimeter, Kearfott inertial navigation system, a APN-218 Doppler radar velocity sensor (DVS), APN-224 radar altimeter, ARN-118 TACAN tactical air navigation system and ARN-108 instrument landing system (ILS).
The communications suite includes ASC-19 AFSATCOM satellite communications, long range ARC-190 HF radio, KY-58 secure voice line-of-sight encryption device, ARC-171 UHF line-of-sight communications radio system, ARR-85 secure or open line-of-sight system and APX-101A IFF (identification friend or foe).
The F-205 Arrow sensor and communications suite is intended to facilitate complete situational awareness, command-and-control and network-centric warfare capability. The communications, navigation and identification (CNI) suite also includes a Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL).
Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) is a data waveform to provide secure data-linking technology between stealth aircraft. MADL provides needed throughput, latency, frequency-hopping and anti-jamming capability with phased Array Antenna Assemblies (AAAs) that send and receive tightly directed radio signals.
The System Architecture has been what is referred to as “open” intentionally using the MIL-STD-1553 bus. The advantage of an open architecture configuration for its avionics is that operators of the CF-205 Arrow will have options to choose from components and systems made by various nations and corporations and integrate them with the minimal amount of effort. The CF-205 Arrow systems are equipped with the Fully Integrated Data Link (FIDL). The FIDL allows for electronic data sharing between systems and among the aircraft crew and ground stations.
The Arrow Mk 2’s CANFIRE-2 radar complex includes three X-Band AESA radars located on the front and sides of the aircraft that provide full 720 degree coverage and allow the targeting and firing Semi-Active Radar missiles at targets and their terminal guidance in any direction. These are accompanied by L-Band radars on the wing leading edges. L-Band radars are proven to have increased effectiveness against very low observable (VLO) targets which are optimized only against X-Band frequencies, but their longer wavelengths reduce their resolution.
CANFIRE-2 is an advanced multi-mode passive electronically scanned array radar system. The radar system provides air-to-air, air-to-sea and air-to-ground (ground mapping, Doppler beam sharpening and Synthetic Aperture radar modes) modes with improved performance in intense clutter environments. In addition, CANFIRE-2 has been designed to detect low and super-low observable/stealth airborne threats.
The CANFIRE-2 multifunctional radar employs a 900mm passive phased array antennas mounted on a hydraulic actuators. With electronical steering, they each can scan sectors of 60 degrees in both azimuth and elevation. As well by using the hydraulic actuator (mechanical steering), the azimuth coverage boosts to 120 degrees.
The CANFIRE-2 can detect and track up to 30 airborne targets at one time at ranges near 400 kilometers, and attack up to 12. In air-to-surface mode the CANFIRE-2 provides mapping allowing attacking a surface target with precision-guided weapons while scanning the horizon searching for airborne threats that can be engaged using active radar homing missiles. The CANFIRE-2 has the ability to spot super-low observable targets with RCS equal to 0.01 square meters at ranges out to 90 kilometers.
This capability allows the aircraft to engage cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles as well as fifth generation stealth fighter aircrafts such as the F-22 and F-35. The CANFIRE-2 was clearly designed to support ramjet missiles in Beyond Visual Range combat against reduced signature fighters like the Block-II F-18 Hornet and Eurofighter Typhoon.
The OLS, a new development from space technologies, incorporates a helmet-mounted target designation system providing targeting solutions for both ground and air targets in 720 degrees of the aircraft.
It also provides navigation and landing aid as the system is linked to the pilot’s helmet mounted display. The most vital difference from the previous IRST sensor is that the new device provides not only has a better operation range but also offers manually switchable display options of IR view, TV mode or a mix of both that significantly improves man-machine coordination.
Forward arc detection is augmented by the Optical Locator System (OLS) mounted under the nose of the aircraft. Six additional passive infrared sensors are distributed over the aircraft as part of the distributed aperture system (DAS, which acts as a missile warning system, reports missile launch locations, detects and tracks approaching aircraft spherically around the CF-205 Arrow Mk2, and replaces traditional night vision goggles for night operations and navigation. All DAS functions are performed simultaneously, in every direction, at all times.
In air combat, the optronic suite allows:
For ground targets, the suite allows:
The CF-205 Arrow is equipped with a very sensitive Electro-Magnetic Emission Sensor suite that allows the aircraft and crew to detect Electro-Magnetic emissions such as Communications, Radar, and IFF of a target. This system is tied to the OLS sensors. The EM/RF sensors can identify the type of emission/signal; determine the direction of the signal and the range in most cases by the type and strength. The range and accuracy of the detection is proportional to the distance and strength involved but is compensated with by the automatic co-ordination of the OLS sensors.
The CF-205 Arrow Oracle Type 2 Electronic Warfare systems is a sensor fusion suite that combines both Electro-Magnetic/radio frequency and IR tracking for continuous target detection and identification in all directions which is shared via MADL to other platforms without compromising low observability. The CF-205 Arrow can passively track and target both ground and air threats/objectives allowing for a very high level of intercept success and lethality.
The Arrow has been designed with synergy between sensors provide the most cohesive picture of the situational reality around it, and use this information in any possible way, and any possible combination with one another. All of the sensors feed directly into the aircraft’s main processors to support the entire mission of the aircraft.
The aircraft employs a sophisticated and highly integrated Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian. Threat detection is provided by a Radar Warning Receivers (RWR), Infra Red and Optical sensors and a Laser Warning Receivers.
Protection is provided by Chaff, and Flares, Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and a Towed Radar Decoy (TRD). Praetorian monitors and responds automatically to the outside world. It provides the pilot with an all-round prioritized assessment of Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface threats. It can respond to single or multiple threats.
The CF-205 Arrow defensive electronics include the AN/ALQ-161A radar warning and defensive jamming equipment, has three antennae; one at the front base of each wing and the third rear-facing in the tail radome. The ALQ-161 is linked to a total of eight AN/ALE-49 flare dispensers, which are handled by the AN/ASQ-184 avionics management system. Each AN/ALE-49 dispenser has a capacity of 12 MJU-23A/B flares. The MJU-23A/B flare is one of the world's largest infrared countermeasure flares at a weight of over 3.3 pounds (1.5 kg).
The CF-205 Arrow is also equipped with the AN/ALE-55 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy. The AN/ALE-55 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy is an RF (Radio Frequency) countermeasure. The ALE-55 will be primarily used for jamming, specialized countermeasures, and becoming a preferred target. The ALE-55's first form of suppression is standard jamming procedures. The ALE-55 can detect and jam a tracking radar. The aircraft is actually detecting the radar, but the ALE-55, being a decoy, emits jamming signals to confuse the tracking radar. In the case that a radar or radar battery obtains a lock on the aircraft or decoy system, the ALE-55 analyzes the emissions and then determines the optimum jamming technique to break the radar lock. The ALE-55 also possesses the useful ability to send out multiple jamming frequencies if more than one radar is locked on to the decoy or aircraft. When a missile launch is detected, indicated by the difference in radar signal and type, the ALE-55 runs a last resort attempt to protect the aircraft towing it. This last resort is becoming the target, rather than the aircraft. It achieves this by getting between the radar emission and the aircraft, breaking the radar lock from the radar or missile threat, or by staying between the aircraft and radar source, and attempting to lure the missile away from the aircraft.
The F-205 Arrow features a "glass cockpit" without any conventional instruments. It includes:
Emergency escape is provided by a Martin-Baker Mk.16A ejection seat, with the canopy being jettisoned by two rocket motors.
The F-205 Arrow DVI system utilizes a Speech Recognition Module (SRM). It provides the pilot with an additional natural mode of command and control over approximately 26 non-critical cockpit functions, to reduce pilot workload, improve aircraft safety, and expand mission capabilities. The DVI system is speaker-dependent, i.e. requires each pilot to create a template. It is not used for any safety-critical or weapon-critical tasks, such as weapon release or lowering of the undercarriage, but is used for a wide range of other cockpit functions.] Voice commands are confirmed by visual or aural feedback. The system is seen as a major design feature in the reduction of pilot workload and even allows the pilot to assign targets to himself with two simple voice commands, or to any of his wingmen with only five commands.
Due to the extensive network of sensors (both active and passive), the CF-205 Arrow need not be physically pointing at its target for an attack to be successful. This is possible because of sensors that can track and target a nearby aircraft from any orientation, provide the information to the pilot through his helmet (and therefore visible no matter which way they are looking), and provide the seeker-head of a missile with sufficient information.
Recent missile types provide a much greater ability to pursue a target regardless of the launch orientation, called "High Off-Boresight" capability, although the speed and direction in which the munitions is launched affect the effective range of the weapon. Sensors use combined radio frequency and infra red (SAIRST) to continually track nearby aircraft while the pilot's helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) displays and selects targets. The helmet system replaces the display suite-mounted head-up display used in earlier fighters.
The CF-205 Arrow systems provide the edge in the "observe, orient, decide, and act" OODA loop; stealth and advanced sensors aid in observation (while being difficult to observe), automated target tracking helps in orientation, sensor fusion simplifies decision making, and the aircraft's controls allow action against targets without having to look away from them.
The CF-205 Arrow Mk2 has two internal Main bays (5.0 meters by 1.1 meters), two auxiliary internal bays for short range AAMS and six external hard points. The Arrow has a maximum internal weapons load of 7,500 kg. As well the CF-205 mounts one 30mm M61A2 cannon with 200 rounds of ammunition.
The main weapons bays can accommodate a variety of Air to Air weapons, Air to Surface weapons, Electronic Warfare and reconnaissance pods. As reference each of the main bays can contain four long range AAM. or ASMs that are no longer than 4.8m. Due to the large size of the main bays, the CF-205 can accommodate weapons internally that were too large to be infernally stored on the F-35 and F-22. The mounting points are located on tri-pylon rotating assemblies. This allows for the carriage of a mix of munitions and provides the flight crew with a “pick and choose” capability.
Each of the auxiliary bays can accommodate two short range AAMs or ARM versions of the short range AAMs.
Carrying missiles and bombs internally maintains its stealth capability and maintains lower drag resulting in higher top speeds and longer combat ranges. Launching missiles requires opening the weapons bay doors for less than a second; while the missiles are pushed clear of the airframe by hydraulic arms. This reduces the CF-205 Arrow Mk2’s chance of detection by enemy radar systems due to launched ordnance and also allows the Arrow to launch long range missiles while maintaining supercruise speeds.
If it is required external hardpoint are available to carry additional fuel and munitions. At the expense of being more detectable by radar, many more missiles, bombs and fuel tanks can be attached on four wing pylons and two near wingtip positions.
The two wingtip locations can only carry light AAMs or ARMs.
The other pylons can carry a variety of munitions as well as drop tanks for extended range. Normally used in intense combat situations or were additional munitions and fuel supersede Stealth concerns.
The CF-205 Arrow has been designed to have a low radar cross section primarily due to stealthy materials used in construction, including carbon tube nano composites.
Low observable aircraft must consider different types of detection and so the CF-205 Arrow is not only radar stealthy, but it also has infrared and visual signature reduction incorporated.
It possesses jet inlets that conceal the front of the jet engine (a strong radar target) from radar. The engines are buried within the aircraft to conceal the induction fans and hide their exhaust. The small bumps just forward of the engine air intakes form part of the diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) which is a simpler, lighter means to ensure high-quality airflow to the engine over a wide range of conditions. These inlets also crucially improve the aircraft's low-observable characteristics.
Unlike conventional designs the CF-205 Arrow lacks leading edge extensions and instead uses stealth-friendly chines for vortex lift in the same fashion as the SR-71 Blackbird.
Its surfaces are shaped to best defeat radars operating in the X and upper S band, which are typically found in fighters, surface-to-air missiles and their tracking radars, although the aircraft would be easier to detect using other radar frequencies. Because the shape of the aircraft is so important to its radar cross section, special care must be taken to maintain the "outer mold line" during production.