JAVELIN | INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE
The AY151B Infantry Fighting Vehicle "Javelin", based on that of the AY151A, was conceptualised as a simultaneous Anago-Yohannesian armoured personnel transport and ground infantry fighting vehicle, and is strictly designated to act as a mean to both flexibily deploy Anago-Yohannesian personnel towards their respective operational field of tactical engagement and engage lightly armed opposing armoured fighting vehicles and ground infantry formations within its supporting vicinity.
The AY151B was famous for its crucial role during the War of the Four Emperors, where it commonly accompanied the Anago-Yohannesian state-of-the-art AY2-1E Panthera Tigris main battle tanks operationally, venturing deep into the opposing Haruspex and Tagmatian lines, nonetheless shamelessly known for its utilisation in the then multiple Anago-Yohannesian raid-and-run operations.
Agile and adequately armed and protected for its role, the AY15B, ever since its first utilisation and procurement domestically, has been loved by the majority of Anago-Yohannesian personnel for its easy-handling and extraordinary engine quality and capability.
Following approval by the Imperial and Royal Ministry of Defence, the AY151B 'Javelin' Infantry Fighting Vehicle is now available for export by virtue of VMK AG and its subsidiary international land systems contracting entities.
After procuring the rights to the Javelin in early 2012, the New Hayesalian Army saw fit to begin a program which would allow the Javelin to act as an amphibious vehicle.
The primary armament of the AY151B was the Anago-Yohannesian 30mm AY1A automatic cannon, which holds eight hundred rounds, and is fully capable of providing a considerable direct vehicular tactical offensive role against opposing enemy infantries, dug-out defensive blocks, lightly armed trenches and built up areas, and hostile light armoured fighting vehicles. It was refitted with the Model 306 revolver cannon from Argus Armaments, a faster-firing and hard-hitting weapon, mounted on a Ragnarok 300 (Vallhalla Turrets) Remote Weapons Station, thereby remaining fully external to the Javelin and allowing for additional infantry positions.
The AY151B utilised the standard armour configuration maintained by the AY151 series, with the majority of unneded laters removed as so accordingly befitted towards the role of the armoured personnel carrier, with only important pinpoint and major sections being reinforced by the adversus armour layer.
Adversus is the latest in the LAIX ARMS line-up of armour solutions, originating from the Free Republic of Lamoni. Adversus starts with Exote, which is rated as being effective against small arms armour piercing rounds (including 15 mm armour piercing rounds). The Exote layer is expected to deal with small arms fire and shrapnel from enemy weapons fire. Exote is Titanium Carbide ceramic particles in a metallic matrix. In this case, the metallic matrix is RHA, making it ductile, which greatly improves its multi-hit capabilities while preserving typical ceramic terminal ballistic properties -- high hardness and ablation.
Due to the fact that the ceramic has been suspended in matrix form instead of sintered together, it is cheaper than ceramic tile armour arrays, while providing calculated protection levels equivalent to a 1.77x thickness efficiency, and 2.25x mass efficiency, compared to RHA alone. This process means that Exote is classified as a Metal Matrix Composite, or MMC. Exote-Armour was invented and first manufactured by Exote Ltd., a Finnish corporation.
Upon impact by an armour-piercing round, Exote's Titanium Carbide particles wear down the round via ablation, until the round is effectively turned into dust. Exote also spreads out the energy of the round, and distributes it over a larger area, thus fully neutralizing impact. The damage area is only 20-30% larger than the calibre of the hit, and the rest of the plate will still remain protective. This can be seen in Exote's multi-hit armour characteristic, which provides excellent protection from small arms, with a lighter weight than RHA alone. The Exote is also used to contain the rest of the armour package.
Lamonian innovations in the form of extruded para-organic resilin are also used. Resilin is an elastomeric fibrous compound found within the musculature of insects. To quote Dr Chris Elvin of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation;
"Resilin has evolved over hundreds of millions of years in insects into the most efficient elastic protein known..."
Using genetically modified E.Coli bacteria, the CSIRO team was able to synthetically generate a soluble Resilin protein, based upon the cloning and expression of the first exon of the Drosophila CG15920 gene. By means of a CSIRO-patented process, the resulting resilin rubber was shown to have structurally near-perfect resilience nature, with a ninety-seven percent post-stress recovery.
The next-nearest competitors are synthetic polybutadiene ‘superball’ high resilience rubber (80 per cent) and elastin (90 per cent). The cross-linking process itself is remarkably simple. It needs only three components - the protein, generally lactose, or a near analogue, a metal ligand complex, ruthenium in this case, and an electron acceptor. The mixture is then flashed with visible light of 452 nanometres wavelength to form the polymer - within 20 seconds, the proteins will be cross-linked into a matrix with remarkable tensile strength.
Like it's Acerbitas cousin, the Resilin used in Adversus is intended, as with NERA generally, to warp, bend or bulge the Aermet 100 plates upon impact. As the plates move, bullets are subjected to transverse and shear forces, diminishing their penetration, and shaped-charge weapons find their plasma jets unable to readily focus on a single area of armor. In the case of segmented projectiles, the transverse forces are less pronounced, compared to unitary variants, but the movement of the plate essentially forces the projectile to penetrate twice, again lowering total impact upon the platform protected.
The Resilin components are layered with Aermet 100 plates. The Aermet plates are angled, as penetrators striking angled plates will bend into the direction the plate is facing. This action on the part of the penetrator serves to significantly reduce the impact of the penetrator itself, as the penetrator expends energy on this bending motion, instead of being allowed to focus all of its kinetic energy on a single spot on the armour.
Aermet 100 alloy features high hardness and strength, coupled with high ductility. Aermet 100 alloy is used for applications requiring high strength, high fracture toughness, high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue. Aermet 100 is more difficult to machine than other steels; Aermet being specially graded martensitic steel, and requires the use of carbide tools.
Composite Sandwich Panels are used both to increase the structural integrity of the armour, as well as to catch fragments that are created by enemy fire. The outside of the panels are composed of one centimetre thick plates of Aermet 100 alloy. One such plate is placed on either side of the panel. The interior of each panel consists of a three centimetre thick honeycomb of hexagonal celled, thickness oriented Aermet 100, where each cell of the honeycomb measures six millimetres across. Each hexagonal cell is filled with a mix of sintered Titanium Diboride (TiB2) ceramic tiles, and vinylester resin. This adds additional ceramic protection to the armour.
Ti-6Al-4V is a very popular alloy of Titanium. Designed for high tensile strength applications in the 1000 MPa range, the alloy has previously been used for aerospace, marine, power generation and offshore industries applications. Ti-6Al-4V offers all-round performance for a variety of weight reduction applications. It is used to sandwich the Depleted Uranium mesh, encase the SiC ceramic, and as the majority of the armour after that.
As chemically pure Depleted Uranium is very brittle, and is not as strong as alloys, U-3Ti alloy is used for the DU mesh. This alloy has a density of 18.6 grams per cubic centimetre. The alloy displays higher strength, and less brittleness than chemically pure Depleted Uranium.
Silicon Carbide encased in Ti-6Al-4V comes after this, with the Titanium alloy being used to encapsulate the SiC ceramic, as well as assist in hydrostatic prestressing, which is known to extend interface defeat. The SiC is isostatically pressed into the heated matrix; which more securely binds the ceramic into place.
Interface Defeat is a phenomenon observed when a hypervelocity penetrator strikes a sufficiently hard ceramic. The penetrator flattens its nose against the ceramic without penetrating into the ceramic for up to several microseconds, with penetrator material flowing laterally across the face of the ceramic until the ceramic starts to crack. As soon as cracks form, the lateral flow stops and penetration resumes. This effect is also called "dwell" in some publications. Silicon Carbide is excellent for producing this effect.
Most of the armour is concentrated on the frontal arc, with the sides also being covered, but to a lesser degree. The rear of the vehicle is protected by RHA. Where logically applicable.
As a mainstay of soft-hardkill countermeasure the AYHK10 Active Protection System was designated towards the AY151B.
The AYHK10 ADS defeats and intercepted incoming threats by utilising a hemispherical barrier zone around the corresponding armoured vehicle, in which the utilisation of IR and millimetre wave signals is initiated by targeting hostile missiles or projectiles, which preceded the initiation of screening grenades. These sensors will then deliver its encrypted signals to the corresponding crew within the vehicle. The crucial elements within the AYHK10 active protection system are the ability of its corresponding radars to detect and track incoming threat by utilising an internal soft-kill emitter sensor which will then be automatically processed into the AYHK10 computer system, and its ability to countermeasure and effectively intercept the said threat by inputting the aforementioned process into the AYHK10's sub-systems.
Several sensors which is needed for the corresponding initiation of a full hemispherical coverage, for example that of a collection of flat panel radars which is subsequently placed at strategic locations in the shape of a rectangular zone, with the first and second radars located at the front section of the vehicle, just below the front turret, and the third and fourth located just below the hull of the vehicle, protected by the hauberk armour screening, around the armoured vehicle, are included within the AYHK9's detection and tracking subsystem.
Infrared and millimetre wave detectors are also included and inter-connected into a single transmitter within the system, and are attached outside the vehicle's quadrant points. Each of these has infra-red detection and a millimetre wave tracking system, together with an encrypted early warning transmission device which will then transmit any collected informational input to the vehicle's crew.
The associated receiver of the transmitted informational data will then passed on the information to the commander of the associated formational vehicle, and the commander will then proceed to active the AYHK10-A3 control and tracking sub-system. The aforementioned information will then be processed by the commander's computerised inter-connected sub-system computerised screen, which will then encrypted the aforementioned data, and proceed to either countermeasure the identified threat manually, and/or let the system eliminate it automatically.
Once an incoming threat is detected, identified, and verified, the AYHK9 ADS countermeasure sub-system and device will then be activated and positioned accordingly so as to effectively intercept the verified threat, and the vehicle's designated commander will then be able to activate a systematic button which automatically compute the origination of the threat's direction, and alter the position of the tank's turret towards its direction. It will then be launched automatically into the aforementioned intercepted threat in a ballistic trajectory initiation, consequently providing an adequately long distance of threat interception, within a computerised timeframe of approximately three to four seconds.
Due to the broad hemispherical coverage of its internally built laser threat identifier aforementioned above, the AYHK10 ADS is capable of providing a full three hundred and sixty degree active protection scope of operation to its corresponding armoured fighting vehicle, with its targeted range of projectile within its sensory system to include those of anti-tank guided missiles and grenades, and almost any known and visible target within approximately one hundred metres' surrounding of its corresponding armoured fighting vehicle scope of operation.
In regard to the possibility of a newly emerging projectile incoming target to be identified by the soft-kill emitter sensor, the hard-kill computerised system will then identify and verify the input of the new incoming projectile at a distance of approximately two metres from the system's corresponding armoured fighting vehicle, so as to minimise any unwanted trajectory friendly-fire casualties, all within a reactionary timeframe of just two seconds in-between the old, and the new targeted projectile threat.
The AYHK10 ADS, unlike that of the AYHK9, can also be altered as an effective fast counteractive vehicular protection system, rendering ineffective any hostile rocket propelled grenade initiation in a close range combat situation within a total responsive period of approximately 1.3 ms. A plural passive sensors has been added towards the AYHK10, allowing the active defence system to track and verify its surrounding to locate the threat detected by its laser tracker, which further will determine the angular co-ordination, range, and velocity of the aforementioned threat. Countermunitions will then be initiated, in the circumstance whereas the threat has been regarded as initiated, which will provide a fast countermeasure initiation against its verified hostile target, and its guidance is supported by the AYHK10's computerised software onboard the vehicle.
The AYHK10 ADS is also equipped with its own radiometric countermeasure sub-system, which can be utilised to render invalid any millimetre wave sensory guidance system targeting its associated vehicle, which can be employed by hostile missiles to act as a projector guide towards the vehicle. Dubbed the AYXA-1BS the countermeasure sub-system utilised the existence of a repetitive source of millimetre wave, and an inter-connected system of attenuator and circular light converter to transmit the radiatory millimetre wave signal around the armoured fighting vehicle's immediate surrounding environment.
The aforementioned process will then create a substantial electromagnetic field within the vicinity of the vehicle, which was conceptualised to provide a sufficient radiatory intensity to match the vehicle's surrounding environmental features, such as any surrounding buildings and/or trees within its vicinity. As a result, any sensory detection and radiatory guidance system initiated to assist any hostile missiles towards the AY151B will be rendered invalid and defunct, thereby drastically increasing its survivability rate operationally.
The AY151B also comes with its own signature reduction system.
Dubbed by the VWK Bureau of Development and Research as the "Lotion", it consists of a multi-spectral light-weight, ultra camouflage net system, based upon the existing ULCANS system.
Lotion consists of two beckets block of loops attached together at the screen of the corresponding camouflaging layer, formed in an alternating conjunction with long beckets block of loops, and to be initiated repeatedly. A detachment of the attached beckets will then automatically dismembered rapidly the aforementioned beckets loops from each other, and thus limiting the existence of a rigid plastic structure within the system, and further decreasing its associated armoured fighting vehicle's chance of detection from hostile infrared radiatory initiation.
A domestically manufactured infrared camouflage screen is used within Lotion, which further decrease the rate of infrared detection of the Lotion's associated armoured fighting vehicle from hostile infrared detection devices and initiation. The layer consists of lightweight pores-contained materials, which will then be attached with strips to its corresponding layer, with the ability to appropriately reducing, depending on the circumstance involved, its corresponding armoured fighting vehicle's infrared detection rate, and is deemed to be effective at a range of over 50 metres from any present infrared and similar means of detection.
Commonality and Anago-Yohannesian systems tradition has also seen the AY151B's utilisation of the AY09 AFEDSS (AY09 Automatic Fire and Explosion Detection and Suppression System). AY09 AFEDSS is a fully automatic combat operational detection, control, and suppression system, instantaneous and flexibly adjustable to that of a normal and combat mode setting, to be altered as to the circumstances involved within the operational and tactical surrounding of the vehicle.
The primary reason behind the AY09 AFEDSS's development by the VMK Bureau of Design Committee was solely based by virtue upon the AY09's potency to provide a projectile penetration combat protection to Anago-Yohannesian crews and engine on the battlefied by instantly discharging and suppressing fire and/or explosions.
AY09 AFEDSS also features the ability to detect the rise and fall of temperatures within the compartment of the engine by utilising an overheat wire detector, systematically detect and verified a first-degree pressure shock-capable explosion and/or fire within 3.1 ms and suppress it within 100 ms, by utilising its optical fire detection and protection system against HEAT and/or KE (kinetic energy) round penetration, and an operational dual mode automatic status indicator which systematically provide a backing capability in the event of a major malfunctioning of the system.
Furthermore, the vehicle features a central air cooled crew compartment system and a liquid heater based on the engine to accommodate the crew compartment with heating during any possible operations conducted within the period of winter season, which additionally reduce the vehicle's engine heat signature based system. An NBC protected water tank sub-system is also connected to the liquid heater, which can be used for the crew's necessary personal use of cold and/or hot waters in time of need.
The presence of easily-accessible small armaments storage is designated towards the respective crew members' defensive need on the likelihood of any unfavourable scenarios, and a higher rate of survivability was reached by significantly reducing vehicular exposure and pressure shock with the application of AYX47-B1 fibreoptic connections towards the AY151B's electronics.
Using counter-sided rack seating, 10 combat-loaded passengers can be carried in the Javelin IFV.
The FB-6TSDH engine is a diesel-electric hybrid six-cylinder boxer engine displacing only a mere 9.2 Litres yet producing nearly 500kw of power employing the Internal Combustion Engine only, and over 700kw with electric power boost. The hybrid system, Forza's own HybriDrive technology, not only ensures that the vehicle is one of, if not the, most powerful, fastest and fastest accelerating armoured fighting vehicle in it's class, but, when teamed small displacement internal combustion engine, also makes it one of the most fuel efficient armoured fighting vehicles ever produced.
The main reason for the immense power output of the Forza FB-6TSDH engine is the teaming of it's high-boost forced induction system along with it's very high compression ratio. For a direct commonrail injected diesel engine, this version of the FB-HTSD posseses a ratio of 23.5:1, essentially meaning the engine compresses 1540 cubic centimetres of fuel and air mixture into 63 cubic centimetres in every cycle.
The compression ratio is acheived by long stroke of the existing FB-6TSDH powerplant. Because of this very high ratio, this called for the cylinder block to be manufactured with very thick cylinder walls in order to maintain it's structural integrity. Despite it's low displacement, the FB-6TSDH weighs no less than a similarly powerful 20 litre engine when one factors in the additional weight of the HybriDrive system, although consuming much less fuel.
To further boost power, the maximum boost of the turbochargers was set 1.6 bar, which creates a significant increase in power when the turbochargers are active higher up the rev range, but due to the nature of a twincharger engine, makes no difference in low engine speeds due to the supercharger being the sole provider of forced induction.
Forza engineers designed the FB-6TSDH as a six cylinder boxer, although a twelve cylinder was the preferred choice by the Anago-Yohannesian Imperial and Royal Armed Defence Forces, simply because it allowed more space for the HybriDrive system to be fitted. The risk of a cylinder failing was more or less written off as a risk due to the presence of the battery pack and electric motors which could propel the vehicle to safety in case the worst came to the worst.
The pistons are arranged in a boxer layout which is a layout seldom seen except for several high performance sports cars. A flat layout, which is more commonly seen, is near identical in appearence and theory to a boxer engine; there is still a 180 degree angle between the two seperate banks of pistons, however a boxer engine mounts two opposing pistons on two different crank pins as opposed to a flat engine which mounts two pistons on the same crank pin.
Thus, a flat layout is best described as a 180 degree V engine and not a true boxer engine. Boxer engines are reknown for having superb balance and are unique in that a boxer engine does not require counter balances at all on the crank shaft as the engine has superb natural balance. This is further enhanced by the use of twelve cylinders. Boxers are so named because when one looks at the engine from down the crankshaft, the two banks of cylinders will appear to be boxing one another.
The induction system is a variant of Forza's TwinCharger system; a single Roots-type Superchager is used to aspirate the engine at low RPM's with two Turbochargers, one for each bank of cylinders, aspirating the engine further down the rev-range. TwinCharging systems have a number of advantages over other forms of forced induction. Unlike Turbocharged engines, Twincharged engines do not experience turbo-lag, where the turbochargers are ineffective because they are not at operating speeds.
Unlike supercharged engines, twincharged engines can decouple the supercharger from the engine so that it won't drain power to operate while still maintaining boost from the turbochargers. The two forms of forced induction do not operate in parallel in a bid to avoid the extremely high manifold temperatures which would be produced by the supercharger blowing into the turbocharger. As such, the supercharger is decoupled as soon as the turbocharger activates on the FB-6TSDH. The TwinCharger system alone allows the vehicle to have constant boost and thus give exceptional acceleration at all engine speeds; something crucial for a battlefield environment.
The engine block itself is made from aluminium alloy, comprised of 11% silicon, 4% manganese and 0.5% magnesium. This Al-Alloy has a high thermal conductivity and hence is able to dissipate heat quicker than cast iron. Also, it leads more thermal efficiency, cooler running engines and are lighter thereby improving the overall vehicle’s operative characteristics.
In total, the engine has a total displacement of 9,240 cubic centimetres or 9.24 Litres, which equates to 1.54 Litres per cylinder. This version of the FB-6TSDH, with its high compression ratio and boost pressure creates a specific output of 54kw/litre, which combines to form a total output of 499kw. This is only the power of the internal combustion engine.
Exhaust fumes and gases are passed out the rear of the vehicle, through a double muffler and particle filter. Exhaust gases are diluted with outside air to reduce their heat signature. This is done by sucking air through a small inlet flush against the tank and mixing the cool outside air with the exhaust gases. Exhausted and outside air meet in a special Y tube, with a radiator being mounted on the stem of the Y, sucking air from both stems through to the exhaust.
Sound-deadening engine covers are also fitted to the engine to reduce the noise both inside and outside the cabin. Forza engineers are normally ardent at reducing the NVH of large luxury cars but found the same basic principles applied to armoured vehicles. Double-insulated sound covers are placed in a box to cover the engine, which is itself mounted on springs to quell vibrations. The top of this box can be easily removed to lift the whole engine out. As a result, the vehicle, similar to all Anago-Yohannesian main battle tanks so far, is drastically quieter inside and out than the majority of most if not all other armoured fighting vehicles.
The Forza HybriDrive replaces a normal geared transmission with an electromechanical system. Because an internal combustion engine (ICE) delivers power best only over a small range of torques and speeds, the crankshaft of the engine is usually attached to an automatic or manual transmission by a clutch or torque converter that allows the driver to adjust the speed and torque that can be delivered by the engine to the torque and speed needed to drive the wheels of the car. For classification purposes, the gearbox can be described as an Electronic Continuously Variable Transmission, or EVT.
The HybriDrive system replaces the gearbox, alternator and starter motor with a three-phase brushless alternator serving as a generator, two powerful motor-generators, a computerized shunt system to control the afforementioned devices, a mechanical power splitter that acts as a second differential, and a battery pack that serves as an energy reservoir. The motor-generator uses power from the battery pack to propel the vehicle at startup and at low speeds or under acceleration. The ICE may or may not be running at startup. When higher speeds, faster acceleration or more power for charging the batteries is needed the ICE is started by the motor-generator, acting as a starter motor.
When the operator wants the vehicle to slow down the initial travel of the brake pedal engages the motor-generator into generator mode converting much of the forward motion into electrical current flow which is used to recharge the batteries while slowing down the vehicle. In this way the forward momentum regenerates or converts much of the energy used to accelerate the vehicle back into stored electrical energy.
The sole purpose of the brushless alternator is to convert mechanical energy generated by the ICE and convert it into electrical energy which is stored in the battery pack. In addition, by regulating the amount of electrical power generated, the alternator also controls and regulates the transmission of the vehicle by changing the internal resistance of the alternator. The pair of motor generators drive the vehicle in tandem with the ICE. The two roles are not interchangeable. When the two motor generators are in operation, they create an extra 200kw of between them.
The mechanical gearing design of the system allows the mechanical power from the ICE to be split three ways: extra torque, extra rotation speed, and power for an electric generator. A computer program running appropriate actuators controls the systems and directs the power flow from the different engine and the electric motor sources. This power split achieves the benefits of a continuously variable transmission (CVT), except that the torque/speed conversion uses an electric motor rather than a direct mechanical gear train connection. The vehicle cannot operate without the computer, power electronics, battery pack and motor-generators, though in principle it could operate while missing the internal combustion engine.
The transmission contains a planetary gear set that adjusts and blends the amount of torque from the engine and motors as it’s needed. Special couplings and sensors monitor rotation speed of each track and the total torque on the tracks, for feedback to the control computer.
In summary, the HybriDrive system works by the brushless alternator feeding electric power to the battery pack where it is stored, before it is supplied to the two motor generators which rectify the electric energy into mechanical energy, where it is then used to drive the tracks. Furthermore, during normal operation the engine can be operated at or near its ideal speed and torque level for power, economy, or emissions, with the battery pack absorbing or supplying power as appropriate to balance the demand placed by the driver. During stoppages the internal combustion engine can even be turned off for even more economy.
Two other advantages are made possible by this set up.
The first is "Stealth Mode," where the vehicle can travel at slow to medium speeds without using the ICE for power, thus running silently. This gives an assaulting force an enourmous advantage as an enemy will generally not be able to hear the IFV approaching, except over rough ground which would cause noise. However, the absence of an engine note will mean that the noise of the tracks on the ground alone will not alert the enemy to the presence of an IFV. In this mode, the alternator spins freely and the engine is de-coupled from the rest of the drivetrain. Stealth Mode can be run for up to fourty minutes or fifty kilometres running off the battery power. After this, the ICE will need to recharge the battery pack.
The second is the "Overboost" function. When accelerating, the vehicle teams the powerful ICE with the pair of motor-generators to combine their power and torque, resulting in a huge boost to acceleration. The Overboost function can also be employed for the vehicle to act as a tug, by either pushing or pulling an otherwise immobile vehicle, up to an eighty tonne MBT, to a safer position.
The vehicle is able to reach comparitively high speeds for a tracked vehicle by the use of protective rubber covers placed over the steel tracks. Effectively, these covers are essentially odd sized tyres which cannot be inflated. The outside of these rubber tracks are made from dense and durable rubber while the inner of the covering track is made from high-density latex which provides a limited shock absorbtion role, thus greatly reducing the stress placed upon the steel tracks underneath the rubber covering. If this exterior cover is damaged, it can be easily shed from the track and the track can continue on it's way relatively unaffected aside from a much lower maximum speed.
The AY151B's suspension system is the internationally renown VLT active Hydropneumatic Vehicle System (HPVS), used on all recent VLT Group military vehicles.
This system works with hydraulic cylinders, mounted behind every road wheel (thus, 7 on each side). The cylinders have been connected with each other along the length of the vehicle, together with nitrogen-filled hydraulic accumulators. If a roadwheel hits a bump, the nitrogen is compressed by the hydraulic oil inside the hydraulic unit, if the wheel then returns to the normal driving situation, the nitrogen will expand once again to return the suspension to normal circumstances. A constant hydropneumatic suspension with onboard damping is thus available.
The system, however, is progressive, which means that the system can take into account the type of terrain the vehicle is currently on, as well as differences in weight. As the hydropneumatic cylinders are only connected length-wise, the suspension left and right has essentially been separated, which means that all wheels will have equal ground pressure in uneven terrain, dividing the ground pressure more evenly over the tracks. A downside of the lengthwise cylinder connection is that a vehicle would be likely to nose-dive during braking or lean backwards during acceleration.
To combat this, the VLT HPVS system of the vehicle is equipped with a computer that can measure pitch, roll, acceleration and deceleration in both lateral and longitudinal directions, as well as various other variables in relation to the actions of the driver and the condition of the surface.
The computer, also connected to several gyroscopes, can thus monitor the movements of the vehicle, and anticipate and act upon changes in the suspension level by reducing or increasing the level of hydraulic fluid in specific cylinders or in all cylinders, through a central pump with a reservoir for hydraulic fluid.
The driver also has the ability to make the tank kneel or tilt to one side, but can also choose to lower or higher the entire suspension, thus allowing the vehicle to reduce its silhouette by being lower, or having more ground clearance in a higher suspension setting. The body computer also knows when the gun is discharged, and the system will move to counteract the recoil of the system to make sure the vehicle will remain stable.
The cylinders used in this system have very few moving parts, meaning they require little maintenance, and will not require replacement often. The system itself is light, reliable and relatively small, and ready for a long service life, and should replacement be necessary, a mechanic can mount a new cylinder unit (which can be ordered complete or in parts, with complete units only requiring basic mechanical skill to mount into the hull and connect the hydraulic tubing).
Also, the HPVS system is, in soldier terminology, idiot-proof by being able to withstand the extra stresses of exceeding the maximum weight of the vehicle. All cylinders are encapsulated in armoured units behind armoured skirts, protecting the system from being damaged. Should one of the cylinders be damaged, despite these protection measures, the central body computer of the suspension system can detect a leak in the system and shut off the leaking cylinders by closing valves.
This prevents a leak from draining the system and allows the vehicle to continue, despite damage to the suspension system, as long as the tracks themselves have not been damaged, and the system has several additional features, such as the crosswise stabilization of the vehicle that takes place automatically under a speed of 3 km/h. If necessary, the driver can also engage it at speeds above this limit.
The stabilisation system makes sure that the hull and turret of the vehicle remain as level as possible while the vehicle itself is at a side slope. This is done by locking the cylinders of the suspension in a level position on one side of the vehicle.
This prevents the vehicle from tipping over, making it easier to cross steep side slopes. Also, there is a system on board that stabilizes the vehicle in corners, to reduce vehicle roll. This is done by temporarily deactivating the hydropneumatic suspension in high-speed corners, reducing the rolling movement caused by the suspension system. If necessary, the system can also be turned off by the driver or commander.
Next to these features, HPVS also offers a vehicle weight indicator, making it easy to remind the driver or commander of the weight of the vehicle. Also, a system has been installed that can keep the vehicle completely level when standing still, as long as the slope the vehicle is on is not too extreme.
All in all, the VLT Automotive HPVS system has established a drastic increase upon the vehicle's mobility, even under rough terrain conditions, whilst maintaining crew comfort and gun accuracy due to the superior stabilization the active hydropneumatic suspension offers. The development of HPVS-MBT for the AY151B has reaffirmed VLT's superiority in the field of military vehicle suspensions, with the introduction of its hydropneumatic vehicle system (HPVS).
Model 306 Peacemaker revolver cannon:
Amastol has always had a long connection with revolver cannons, preferring the higher accuracy and lower dispersion versus the higher rate of fire of a externally driven Gatling.Though most such weapons were gas operated, striker fired designs ARGUS, Amastols' largest arms supplier has been a proponent of an advanced externally driven revolver cannon for some years. After loosing out to the Deckai Design Bureau in 2007 for the Armed Royal Airforce 27mm Cannon contract Argus was able to get a taste of revenge when in 2009 the DDB was officially privatized and subsequently failed. Despite multiple foreign contracts, the 'Black Wednesday' stock market crash in May of 2009. Argus wasted no time in buying out the floundering business and subsequently began integrating the companies design and development teams into their own. The Model 306 is the product of one such composite design team that had in the past competed against each other for the same contracts. The result is a highly capable, highly efficient automatic cannon capable of exceptional air to air and air to ground performance.
The Model 306 also known by its project name 'Peacemaker' is an externally powered, air cooled, revolver cannon, utilizing advanced materials and design elements to maximize its lethality. Unlike many Amastoli revolver cannons, the Model 306 is externally powered cannon, trading off weight for reliability and balance. The Peacemaker however is not a traditional externally powered revolver cannons, the drive motor and gearing is located forward of the cylinder above the barrel. This non-linear arrangement is somewhat similar to the concept of a bullpup arrangement in small arms. Giving the 306 a longer barrel and thinner side profile for the same given length. The longer barrel increases the projectile velocity of the relatively heavy projectile, and decreases time to target lag. The location of the motor also moves the weapons center of balance forward, improving weapon mounting options and increasing weapon stability.
The Peacemakers' design was developed to allow modular replacement of high wear components as complete subsystems. This modular approach decreases weapon downtime and allows for substantially improved service life. The use of removable subsystems decreases training time as each subsystem can be maintained without stripping, or significant disassembly. Other than the Chassis, Barrel, and Drive Cylinder the majority of remaining parts are combined into modular replaceable units allowing one man (with the assistance of power tools) to completely strip the weapon for maintenance on the ground. With a ground based interface diagnostics and weapon function tests can be completed by utilizing the weapons built in Peacemaker Combat Operation Interface Software.
The revolver cannon is unfortunately bound by the restrictions of its class, and thus in order to reach its maximum rate of fire the weapon must ‘spin up’ to speed first compare do a Gast or linear gun. Initial attempts at increasing the motor torque to decrease firing lag, quickly hit diminishing returns in the from of increased mass and weight of the drive system. Utilizing a a cast and precision CNC-milled aluminum cylinder with steel chamber inserts, the rotating weight is substantially reduced. Subsequently spin-up times for the Model 306 are reduced by ten percent, increasing its first round hit capability and ensuring proper target saturation. The fluted steel inserts are replaceable so as to reduce the effects of throat erosion on weapon accuracy, reliability, and safety. The fluted chamber design help reduced heat transfer to incoming rounds to prevent a potential cook off in the weapons cylinder. The chambers reduced surface area contact also reduced friction and and improves extraction reliability, a major concern when firing more than twenty round per second.
Because the Peacemaker is externally powered, occurrences such as dud rounds, stiff primers and other ammunition related failures that would stop most gas-operated cannons in their place are of little concerns to the 306. Should a round fail to fire the system merely pushes through and continues firing regardless. Though this does mean the loss of that projectile, overall target saturation should not be substantially diminished regardless of where the dud occurred. Since so specialty 'clearing cartridges' are needed to restart the system if it jams the weapon is less cluttered by unnecessary mechanisms and thus easier to maintain by ground personnel.
The barrel of the 306 is nineteen–hundred and fifty millimeters long, or sixty-five calibers in length. In order to keep the barrels thermal load within manageable levels at such high rates of fire, the first three hundred millimeters are ringed by linear aluminum cooling fins. These rigid fins also helps provide barrel rigidity and add support to the rear of the barrel. The added rigidity decreases loss of gas efficiency from increased barrel/cylinder gap caused due to excess vibration of the barrel extension and forcing cone. The long barrel of the Peacemaker allows for more of the rounds powder to be consumed on firing providing not only increasing efficiency but also decreasing muzzle blast and peak recoil impulse due to smoother round acceleration. The reduced muzzle blast reduces wear on the mounting vehicle and the higher gas efficiency decreases time to target lag and thus improved fist hit capability.
In order to maximize service life the barrel was Cold Hammer Forged with Gain-twist Polygonal rifling pattern. This combination of features provides significantly decreased barrel wear and fouling build up due to reduced internal sharp edges which can lead to 'leading' which can result in increased fouling and potential binding of the working components. The progressive or gain twist rifling profile allows for a more gradual rotation of the projectile extending the area of major structural stress on the barrel along the length so as to reduce peak stress on the barrel. Operating components are designed to survive the punishing conditions of heat and fouling, a necessity when firing at such high rates of fire. The extractor is designed to provide maximum surface area contact for maximum extraction force with reduced rim stress in order to prevent the occasion of torn rims. Combined with replaceable fluted steel chambers and modular construction; with regular maintenance weapon service life can reach tens of thousands of rounds before the weapon must be replaced or even potentially fully removed from the mount.
Integrated into the highly efficient baffle-style muzzle brake, an Inductive Programing and Fusing System (IPFS) allows for non-contact speed calculation and fuse programming of outgoing rounds. This allows M110AD AHEAD or M110S/H/HR SAPHE Series rounds the ability to saturate an air or ground target based on its range and desired explosive effect on target. In the air this means a mixed depth saturated field of fire leaving 'no place to run' from its lethal effect. Against ground targets, embrasures and trenches are no longer capable of protecting exposed infantry from the the Peacemakers fury, either detonating over or in such fortifications to sterilize the battlefield with its fury.
The Model 306 is capable of feeding from two modular cassettes of one hundred and twenty-five rounds each. Either of the same or different type of ammunition and allows for an operator to mix the rounds (for example SAPHEI, and FAPDS) as may be required according to the target type and or attitude. Since both weight and volume were seen as the primary limiting factors in the design Argus knew that round storage would be equally important. Instead of developing a single massive high capacity storage system for the weapon it was decided that a modular system would provide the most flexibility in both installation and deployment. Each cassette contains its own feed assist system the cartridges may be stored in almost any position and still provide continuous reliable feeding to the weapon, allowing for more mounting options for both the gun and ammunition in a confined space.
The powered system is considered ‘plug and play’ requiring no additional set up or fire control interface, because the magazine merely provides feed assistance when the gun operates. Fire control networking is only needed for the weapon itself through PCOI, simplifying installation. Folding handles are attached to the front and back sides of the cassette allowing for one man to install and remove a cassette without the need for additional tools. Though the weight of a loaded cassette makes it a job that is made substantially easier with a second person. Reloading of the cassette can be accomplished either removed from the vehicle or installed. With the the drive motor set to ‘FI’ or ‘Feed in’ a new batch of ammunition to be fed into the cassette with the assistance of a high capacity linkless feeder. Once loaded the feed connector is reattached and drive motor is reset to ‘FO’ or ‘Feed-Out’ and is ready to be used by the weapon.
The Peacemaker Combat Operation Interface Software is designed to operate within an aircraft or vehicles existing Operating System or Battlefield Management System in order to allow for full control of the weapons function and management. PCOI allows for the user to select the weapons rate of fire, selected projectile fusing, manage magazine inventory, monitor heat build up, and diagnose weapon faults in real time. With two magazines connected to the Peacemaker the PCOI system allows for current round count, ammunition type in feed, and to allow for a mixed feed of rounds from either magazine for maximum on-target effect. If desired; for maximum service life the weapon can choose a maximum rate of fire in order to allow for most efficient cool depending on airspeed or weapon cooling system load.
With its low dispersion, long barrel, and subsequently high muzzle velocity the Model 306 is capable of putting multiple thirty millimeter rounds downrange with very little time to target lag improving first shot hit probability. Intelligent rounds fired with the assistance of the Peacemakers' dedicated Battlefield Management System (PCOI) further increase the weapons lethality, as each hit is capable of directing its wrath directly into the target itself instead of simply placing small holes through the target. These features and its devastating effect on target gave the 306 a reputation as having ‘First-shot kill capability' by the pilots who put it through its air-to-air drone combat tests. The relatively high burst rate, with a highly accurate weapon with extremely short projectile flight time means that a very quick squeeze was usually all it required to rip many targets from the sky mercilessly. Its mounting flexibility, high firepower, and advanced interface due not limit its use to fixed wing aircraft; Ground Vehicles and Naval Vessels can also benefit from Peacemakers reliability and lethality.
Model 306 Specifications-
Manufacturer: Argus Industrial Manufacturing, Kingsforge Arsenal, Amastol
Action: Single Barreled: 6 chamber, Externally Powered, Revolver Cannon
Caliber: M110 30x150B
Primer Ignition: Electrical, requiring 24 Vdc
Rate of Fire: Selectable, 850-1,100 AtG Mode, 1,650 AtA Mode
Muzzle Energy: 182,400 J
Muzzle Velocity: 1,100 m/s
Chamber Pressure: 61,000 psi
Rifling: RH twist, 18 grooves, 4-6 degrees progressive
Effective Range: 4,300 m
Maximum Ballistic Range: ~6,500 m
Feed: Single or Dual feed, Powered Linkless Feed
Dispersion: 3.28 Milliradians
Barrel Cooling: Forced Air
Barrel profile: Cold-Hammer Forged, Polygonal, Progressive
Barrel Life: ~5,500 rounds
The M110 series of high-pressure rounds are based on the traditional GIAT 30x150B round modified to accept the faster burning ARGUS SP3094 Powder. A thick walled polymer-coated steel case with reinforced case head and neck allow the M110 Series of rounds to achieve better overall lethality and ballistic effect due to their higher pressure and correspondingly higher velocity. All M110 series rounds will operate in weapons designed for the 30x150B cartridge due to a unified dimensions and internal storage. Because of their higher peak pressure however, it is not recommended to fire M110 Series of rounds in non-reinforced designs utilizing the lower pressure conventional 30x150B cartridge. In order to compete internationally and provide the highest possible lethality, the M110 series come in a variety of rounds for use in the Peacemaker.
SAPHE (M110S), SAPHEI (M110H), and SAPHEI-T (M110HR)
Designed for either Air to Air or Air to Ground use the Semi-Armor Piercing High Explosive (SAPHE) series of rounds is designed to produce lethal post-penetration effects. The SAPHE projectile is constricted from tempered steel form fitted with an aerodynamic aluminum wind shield to provide an optimum aerodynamic profile. The thick walled projectile is filled with thirty grams of Hexal high explosive and is fitted with a programmable impact initiated base detonating fuse. Selectable between Impact and Delayed impact mode the programmable fuse allows the Inductive Programming and Fusing System to set the rounds fuse just before it leaves the weapons barrel. In delayed impact mode the round is designed to detonate within the target itself after compromising its targets armor there-by maximizing fragmentation and incendiary effects within the target. The SAPHE series can penetrate up to 15 mm armor at 60 degrees against hard targets, and when fired against thin skinned targets the round can penetrate up to 300 mm before detonation depending on the structure of the target. Incendiary, and Incendiary Tracer models are also available (SAPHEI, and SAPHEI-T respectively.)
APDS (M110P), APDS-T (M110PR), and FAPDS (M110C)
The Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS) projectiles of the M110 Series utilize a milled aluminum base that supports and seats the projectile with a multi-piece aerodynamic sabot enclosing both. The armor piecing projectile is constructed typically of tungsten carbide to reduce per round use in high rate of fire mountings. The higher muzzle velocity of the sub caliber projectile allow it to penetrate harder targets and engage up-armored vehicles or protected positions. Penetration values with tungsten carbide projectile is up to 50 mm of RHAe at 60 degrees.
The Frangible variant (FAPDS) is constructed of depleted uranium by default due to its natural density and incendiary effects post impact. Its lack of fuse however makes it safe to handle and store, and because it is enveloped in a sealed sabot, any dust or resulting secondary handling concerns associated with depleted uranium ammunition are fully contained within the sabot. The frangible round is designed to fragment after penetrating the target, increasing under armor effects. This does however reduce it penetration capability limiting it to only 35mm of penetration at 60 degrees. The high penetration value and post penetration fragmentation makes the FAPDS a popular choice for use in CIWS mountings as it allows the engagement of heavy missiles with a much higher lethality and reliability of penetration per shot.
Primarily designated for air defense roles the High Explosive Air-Bursting (HEAB) also known as AHEAD in some circles is a timed and proximity fused High Explosive Fragmentary round that can be used in a variety of roles against light or fast moving targets. The HEAB projectile uses a thin outer case with a base initiating fuse when operating on airburst mode, and initiated by a nose mounted radio proximity fuse when operating in proximity to target mode. The round itself is filled with 120 tungsten carbide rod-shaped sub-projectiles. The separating charge is composed of two separated charges running along the center of the round, this arrangement allows the round to operate in one of two detonation modes which can be set before firing.
The first firing mode is a forward projecting mode which detonates the rear charge first then the forward charge so as to crate a forward firing shotgun-like effect projecting the sub projectiles into target somewhat like a flying claymore. The second firing mode is the simultaneous, mode in which both forward and rear charges at the same time projecting the payload in a spherical pattern. The first firing mode is popular for air defense and against low flying cruise or anti-ship missiles, while the second mode is preferred for ground use due to its ability to detonate over cover. Both modes can be set to detonate at a fixed distance as set by the operator, and utilizing the firing platforms radar or laser range finder. When used in air defense the M110AD series of rounds is able to create a lethal multi-vector assault on a passing aircraft either fixed or rotary winged.
HEI (M110N), and HEI-T (M110NR)
The High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) series of projectiles are constructed of a thin walled steel case that is internally scored to ensure maximum explosive and incendiary effects on target. Like the SAPHE series the HEI series uses a base detonating fuse to increase the projectiles detonation reliability on impact. Like the SAPHE series the fuse is programmable to impact or delayed impact modes. When set to delayed impact the round is capable of penetrating light barricades before detonating. Due to its explosive capacity and a need for safety, the fuse arms approximately ten meters from the muzzle. Upon detonation the round produces over 1000 secondary fragments in addition to its blast and incendiary effects allowing the HEI to deliver maximum lethal effects against soft targets such as light vehicles or infantry. A tracer equipped version (HEI-T) is available though at the reduction of on target lethality due to reduced internal capacity.
TP (M110T), TP-F (M110F), TP-FT (M110FR), TP-T(M110TR), TPD (M110D), BT (M110B), and Cutaway
The M110 Series of training rounds allow for a multitude of live fire and inert drill rounds so as to allow for quick familiarization of the crew with the ammunition and accompanying weapon system. The standard training round projectile is constructed of steel and filled with sand to simulate the medium weight of the M110 series of ammunition, though the weights may be tailored to reflect specific round types if requested. Tracer (TP-T) and Impact signaling (TP-F, and TP-FT) live-fire training rounds are available to increase training effectiveness as on target effects and flight path data allows for quicker understanding of the weapons capabilities reducing training time and increasing a gunners skill with the weapon.
The standard drill round (TP-D) and blank cartridge (BT) are fairly similar in construction being based around a painted aluminum form, compared to the steel cases of the live firing round. The drill round is perforated at three points with seven millimeter diameter holes to allow its quick identification as an inert round regardless of familiarity with the item. The aluminum round is designed to simulate the weight of a loaded round while containing no propellant or explosive, allowing for loading and handling training in a safe manner. The blank cartridge (BT) is based off the same aluminum case but containing only a small amount of black powder in order to provide similar muzzle effects, without potentially injuring surrounding troops or projecting dangerous fragments downrange during military exercises.
The final training round is a specialty cut away round designed for classroom instruction of gunner or EOD personnel. Though expensive per round, these specialty rounds are designed to be exceptionally durable and are of similar weight of the real round with a piano hinge running along the split so that external marking for the round can be viewed as well as showing filled and unfilled halves for better mechanical comprehension of the rounds operation.