PANTHERA ARCTOS | MEDIUM BATTLE TANK
The AY1 was developed in the early 1960s following Yohannes' introduction into the armoured vehicle technological race worldwide. Named the "Arctos", and understandably more commonly known internationally as simply the "Yohannesian AY1", the AY1-series of tanks was the initial experimental project behind the further development and marked improvement of the AY2-series of tanks. The Arctos was adopted by the New Hayesalian Army to replace the M47 Patto. It now serves alongside the Panthera Leo Main Battle Tank in mixed tank companies, acting alongside them to flank and frustrate enemy tanks.
Known for its modularity, mobility and mass-production capacity, the AY1-series of tanks has served within the Yohannesian Wehrmacht for over 50 years as of the present, with numerous variants found throughout varied armoured and infantry support formations within the Wehrmacht's order of strategic engagement.
The designated primary gun of the AY1 is that of the Yohannesian AY1F 125/L55 smoothbore gun, which is the older normal propellant, liquid dispersing variant of the AYM-series of tank gun of the AY2-series of tanks. As of such, logistical issues was of no problem due to the perfect ammunition compatibility between the AY1 and the AY2 series of tanks.
With a weight of 1,170 kg and barrel length of 6.875 m, it utilised a formula of high energy propellant, and is known for its qualitative energy and loading density. The gun was developed in response to the growing export success of VMK land systems globally on the 1960s, particularly in regard the popularity of the Yohannesian AY1 series of tanks, and the entrance of VMK into the global armaments race.
The gun's propellant composition includes a substantially liberal mixture of cyclo trimethyl trinitramine, 31% in relation to the mixed composition of 17% nitrato ethyl nitramines, therefore subtracting the excess of nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine and diethylene glycol dinitrate found within the majority of other gun's double based propellant system, acting as a stabilising factor towards the substantial high improvement of energy output associated with the gun.
Another well-known feature of the gun is its optimised high muzzle velocity. Computerised and lengthy phase of simulation conducted by the Raugott-Universität Halsten team has found that approximately up to 1.5% higher muzzle velocity can be achieved by composing a 25-30-35 percentage of cyclo trimethyl trinitramine together within 5 micron weight particle size.
The Halstenmetall 125/L55 smoothbore tank gun can be produced with ease, together with a reduced manufacturing cost. The VMK Bureau of Development & Technological Research Division, with assistance of that of the Valedonia based, family-privately owned Parsifal-Guido Defence Propellants AG, accomplished the feat by applying the teamed up presence of high energy oxidiser and binder of thermoplastic elastomer, by diverging the concentration of approximately 78% oxidised molding powder particles in relation to its weight, which form the thermoplastic elastomer binder’s covering, with a concentration of 19% in relation to its weight.
Precipitation of polymer substance is utilised during the preparation phase of the molding powder, or more closely known as the polymer precipitating process. At the most basic, the process is achieved by incorporating the energetic polymer as a solute into liquid form, within the chosen solvent.
The next phase involves the slow addition of solid oxidiser, to be followed by a non-solvent to precipitate the polymer. This process is applied to ensure the solid oxidiser and precipitated polymer coating process is identically completed in multiple preparation phases. The coated inter-connected sub-atomic constituents, which has been decided to measure at 730 micrometres are then shaped as appropriate to the gun’s propellant. Such a method has ensured the ease of mass-producing large quantity of the gun’s propellant system at a substantially reduced engineering cost.
Another well-known feature of the Halstenmetall 125/L55 gun is its effective recoil counter-measure, which is achieved by utilising the addition of its unique barrel mounting mechanism. The feature substantially reduces weight and manufacturing effort of the gun, simultaneously incorporated with that of a counter recoil and recoil brake mechanism, to substantially decreasing its track of recoil. This feat is accomplished without reducing the gun’s associated vehicle stability while discharging its projectiles.
An older variant of the XA1Y-E2 of the AY2 series, that of the XA1Y-E1 autoloading gun system, is utilised to feed the gun. The XA1Y-E2 holds twenty rounds, with an additional twenty six rounds stored within the hull of the vehicle. The XA1Y-E1 is capable of firing up to fifteen of the AY1A-3 rounds per minute.
The secondary armaments of the AY1 is that of the AY02-MG, an automatic, air-cooled, and belt-fed short recoil general purpose machine gun chambered for the Yohannesian 7.62x51mm (5,000 rounds) and three smoke-capabled, fragmentation firing grenade launchers on both the surrounding left and right side of the turret with a capability to engage opposing infantries and support personnel within the vicinity of the AY1.
The AY1 and its variants' fire control system is that of the first experimenetal AYTRACK. It is fitted with a compensatory automatic drift device, and its gunner's sight has a two-axis integral laser range-finder incorporated line of stabilised sight together with a missile guidance capability. The field of view consists of a kinetic energy stadiametric ranging scale, fragmentary high explosive, and chemical energy ammunition, designated as an effective secondary range finding method in case of an unexpected emergency. The system unable the gunner to accurately and smoothly track and verified the targets within its scope of operational range.
The X1A-AY GPS system of navigation is also included to calculate and determine the gun's barrel position. By utilising a light modulating LCD screen, the X1A-AY is capable of informing of letting the crew to observe the vehicle's immediate surrounding operational condition, and map. Vehicular radio data furthermore link the tank to its immediate fire control command which allow the AY1 to begin operation upon independent fire-strike missions rapidly once the system has delivered the collected position data, and to reduce the chance of friendly formational casualties by utilising a Yohannesian X10-A BCIS (battlefield combat identification system).
A fully automatic combat operational detection, control and suppression system, that of the AY09 AFEDSS, is also utilised towards the AY1. The vehicle also features a central air cooled crew compartment system and a liquid heater based on the engine to accomodate the crew compartment with heating during any possible operations conducted within the period of winter season, which additionally reduce the AY1's engine heat signature based system. An NBC protected water tank sub-system is also connected to the liquid heater, which can be used for the AY1 crew's neccessary personal use of cold and/or hot waters in time of need.
The presence of an easily-accessible small armaments storage within the AY1's turret is designated towards the respective crew members' defensive need on the likelihood of any unfavourable scenarios, and a higher rate of survivability was reached by significantly reducing vehicular exposure and pressure shock with the application of an AYX47-B1 fibreoptic connections towards the AY1's electronics.
The primary propulsion system of the AY1-1A is the Forza FB-12TSD, a twelve cylinder water-cooled powerplant, capable of a variety of different fuels and being boosted by a forced induction mechanism. The pistons are arranged in a boxer layout. A flat layout is near identical in appearance and theory to a boxer engine; there is still a 180 degree angle between the two seperate banks of pistons, however a boxer engine mounts two opposing pistons on two different crank pins as opposed to a flat engine which mounts two pistons on the same crank pin.
The induction system is a variant of Forza's TwinCharger system; a single Roots-type Superchager is used to aspirate the engine at low RPM's with two Turbochargers, one for each bank of cylinders, aspirating the engine further down the rev-range. TwinCharging systems have a number of advantages over other forms of forced induction. Unlike Turbocharged engines, Twincharged engines do not experience turbo-lag, where the turbochargers are ineffective because they are not at operating speeds. The TwinCharger system allows the AY1 to have constant boost and thus give exceptional acceleration at all engine speeds; something crucial for a battlefield environment.
The engine block itself is made from aluminium alloy, comprised of 11% silicon, 4% manganese and 0.5% magnesium. This Al-Alloy has a high thermal conductivity and hence is able to dissipate heat quicker than cast iron. Also, it leads more thermal efficiency, cooler running engines and are lighter thereby improving the overall vehicle’s operative characteristics.
All up, the engine has a total displacement of 32,240 cubic centimetres or 32.24 Litres, which equates to 2.687 Litres per cylinder, and a total power output of 1500 kilowatts, which equates to a specific output of nearly 47kw per litre.
The transmission in the AY1 is a specialized gearbox made for the tank especially. The Transmission, dubbed the 8GDCT, has eight forward gears and four reverse gears in a double clutch system. In Double Clutch Transmissions the two clutches are arranged concentrically with the larger outer clutch drives the odd numbered gears (1,3,5,7) whilst the smaller inner clutch drives the even numbered gears (2,4,6,8).
Similar to the Drackoni Predator, the AY1-1A utilised the Hohenzollern armour, which utilises grade 5 titanium as its material. Grade 5 titanium, or Ti6Al4V, which is known for its excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance, weld and fabricability, was selected instead of high hardness steel.
This titanium plates are used to sandwich a plate of depleted uranium underneath, thereby resulting in an improved kinetic penetetration protection. Plastic filler, together with components of ceramic plate, is placed under the titanium-depleted uranium plates, to further increase the structural strength of the armour plate under extreme stresses situation.
The ceramic plastic layer assist in the deformation of explosive penetrators and shaped charge weaponries. This is further enhanced by the utilisation of other additional armour modules which may possibly be equipped towards the vehicle. A final, thinner layer of Titanium-Depleted uranium plate is layered underneath the combined armour plates, with a small spacing in between, to further increase its chance of defeating shaped warheads.
On top of the Hohenzollern plates, the tank can also mount Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA), which is designed to be mounted in small modular plates, for ease of replacement after its utilisation. The Yohannesian developed ERA 'Bismarck' consists of a series of small, shaped charges sandwiched between two titanium plates. Upon penetration, the charges detonate and break up or deflect the kinetic penetrator, or force the disruption of shaped charged jets.
Bismarck works by having two plates, an external and internal titanium plate which serves as the 'trigger' for the sandwiched explosives. In the case that a penetrator goes through the external plate and hits the internal layer, the internal mechanism will force one of the shaped charged jets contained in between to detonate and send a stream of molten metal jet to either disrupt a shaped charge round, or destroy a kinetic penetrator.
Internal spall liners for defence against explosives and kinetic impacts in the vehicle's hull round up its armour scheme. The interior of the vehicle is capable of being fully sealed in the event of NBC warfare, and it is equipped with filters and its own oxygen supply if necessary.
To conserve weight, the majority of the armour plating is focused on the frontal glacis and turret of the vehicle, with the sides being slightly lesser armoured in comparison to the frontal armour.