POLARIS CLASS | DESTROYER
Length: 219 meters
Width: 25 meters
Draft: 8.5 meters
Displacement: 18,942 tons
The NW Canadian Polaris class destroyer, backbone of the New Hayesalian fleet, has a 'tumblehome' hull form, i.e. a design in which hull slopes inward from above the waterline. This will significantly reduce the radar cross section since such a slope returns a much less defined radar image rather than a more hard-angled hull form. The bow is designed to cut through waves rather than ride over them.
Watertight compartments, insulation, redundancy of vital systems, power distribution, and routing, blast and fragmentation retaining structures provide a very high level of survivability against missile attack and fire hazards. For nuclear chemical and biological warfare protection the ship is subdivided into two gas citadels and a sub citadel.
Requirements for the integrated deck-house EDM is that it is fully EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) shielded with reduced infrared and radar signatures. Measures to fulfill these conditions include an all-composite superstructure, low signature electronically steered arrays, an integrated multi-function mast and low radar and infrared signatures. Constructed of rugged, lightweight composites, the angular deck-house increases stealth by minimizing radar reflectance. The surfaces of the deck-house incorporate all radar apertures and communication antennas, eliminating high-profile masts and rotating antennas.
The hull material is a sandwich construction comprising a PVC core with a carbon fiber and vinyl laminate as well as multiple layers of Kevlar. The material provides high strength and rigidity, low weight, good shock resistance, low radar and magnetic signature provide a high degree of protection to the ship systems and crew. Layered in the hull material is an electromagnetic absorbing mesh. This mesh serves multiple roles. The first is to absorb EM leakage from the vessel systems to help prevent passive ESM detection of the vessel. Second, and most vital role is the protection of the vessel from EMP effects. The mesh absorbs the EMP energy which is converted to heat and transferred to the below waterline heat sink system where it is dissipated. The mesh will absorb a large percentage of the EMP effects and will allow the vessel to remain combat functional.
The design of the ship incorporates stealth features with an emphasis on the reduction of radar cross section, infrared, acoustic, electrical and magnetic signatures.
The design of the NW Canadian Next Gen Vessels minimizes the optical and infrared signature, above water acoustic and hydro acoustic signature, underwater electrical potential and magnetic signature, pressure signature, radar cross section and actively emitted signals.
The tumblehome hull reduces radar return and the composite material deckhouse also has a low radar return. Water sleeting along the sides, along with passive cool air induction reduces thermal emissions. The thermal signature is further reduced through the use of below water thermal heat sinks that excess heat is vented to. The smart surfaces of the vessels are attempted to be kept at the same temperatures as their environment to reduce or eliminate thermal detection.
To aid in reducing detection by radar, large portions of the vessels above water surfaces have been covered with RAM (Radar Absorbing Material) tiles. The make up of these tiles absorbs Radar energy and does not allow it to return. The radical hull design eliminates all of the "clean" reflective surfaces and "wave traps" that could return a clean radar echo.
An advanced automated damage-control system combines sensors, cameras and automated firefighting capabilities to ensure that the vessel has the fastest possible response time to life- and ship- threatening events. This system improves survivability in both peacetime and wartime while reducing the number of crewmembers needed for damage control.
Depending on the section and the extent of damage, the ships can deploy either a water spray/mist system or use a Halon/Nitrogen dump system to quell fires. The ship's construction is very much modular in design with each module being composed of various self contained compartments. These compartments can be automatically or manually sealed off from the rest of the ship and can also be flooded with sea water. This flooding aids in fire control and can be used in the advent of imminent internal explosions to dampen the blasts by using the water to absorb the concussion as well as the water pressure reinforcing the strength of the compartment walls against the explosive force.
Automation is an important aspect for life aboard these vessels. Aside from general software management and communication with other vessels via Link and other secure networking; supplies such as ammunition, food, and other stores, are all mounted in containers able to be struck below to magazine/storage areas by an automated cargo handling system.
NW Canadian Next Gen Vessels are fitted with an innovative integrated electric propulsion system. Historically, electric-drive ships have supplied power to their electric motors using DC, and ship's electrical load, where necessary at all, was either separately supplied or was supplied as DC with a large range of voltage. Integrated electric propulsion seeks to supply all propulsion and ship's electrical load via AC at a high quality of voltage and frequency. This is achieved by computerized control, high quality transformation and electrical filtering.
The NW Canadian Next Gen Vessels are all nuclear powered making use of the NWCOK-650 reactor in various configurations according to hull size.
The NWCOK-650 reactor is the nuclear fission reactor used to power a number of submarines currently in service with the NW Canadian Navy. Its small, highly efficient design was deemed perfect for the power source of the NW Canadian Next Gen Vessels. It is a pressurized water reactor (PWR), using 20-45% enriched uranium-235 fuel to produce 190 MW of power.
The NWCOK-650 reactor(s) provide electrical power at to a high voltage system. The high voltage supply is then used to provide power to advanced induction motors with outputs of 20 MW (27,000 hp) each. Ship's services, including hotel load and weapons system power supplies are transformed down from the high voltage supply to 440 V or 115 V.
The benefits of integrated electric propulsion are:
The combination of greater efficiency and nuclear endurance, allows for a sustained high speed. Each of the shafts drive five bladed variable-pitch propellers. Each vessel is rated at being capable of doing 32 knots, top speed.
The combat system is based on total ship computing environment (TSCE) utilizing open architecture, standardized software and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware.
The ship is equipped with the SEWACO XI combat data system developed by Thales Naval Nederland. The RNIN's Centre for the Automation of Weapon and Command Systems (CAWCS) has developed the software. The system will use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network architecture.
The integrated bridge and navigation system consists of multi-function consoles capable of displaying various functions such as Sensor matrix output, electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS) and NautoConning navigation data which reads and displays in a logically arranged manner and distributes the navigation data.
One of the consoles is dedicated for route planning purposes.
The integrated bridge and navigation system encompasses the ship steering and control equipment, a ring-laser based dual MINS marine inertial navigation system, two data distribution units and a complete set of navigational sensors and meteorological equipment. A redundant laid out Ethernet bus configuration interconnects the multi-function consoles and sensors.
The communications system has a high-capacity digital communications switch, which interconnects the voice and data communications channels. The system provides internal communications or open conference lines and access to external communications with various radio links and land-based networks. The upgradeable high-performance combat system is based on a high-speed data network. The combat system architecture will enable future weapon systems to be integrated into the frigates. The ship's standard external communications include Link 11, Link 16, Link 22, JTID and JSAT tactical data links, allowing full interoperability with allied forces. Internal communications include messaging, conventional and wireless telephony, public address, closed circuit television, and internet and intranet ports.
The Total Ship Computing Environment is an Open Architecture design. Designed to bind all the vessels systems together, the TSCE creates a shipboard enterprise network allowing seamless integration of all on-board systems. The network is makes use of the NW Canadian developed OMA Linux OS which is known for its ultra stability, and viral resistance. Multiple embedded single board computers are placed through out the vessel as well as three servers per zone. This allows for redundancy and task/load sharing. Are systems as well as data lines are shielded and armored.
The Narvik, Polaris and Decatur series of vessels employ the New Hayesalian-NW Canadian designed WODEN radar bank, designed to operate by pooling resources along with other New Hayesalian and allied vessels including the Belfran designed Perun, Achilles and Ajax vessels.
The vessel makes use of the newly developed APAR/AESA based WODEN Multi-band radar system. This system makes use of an integrated matrix of both active and passive sensors of multiple bands. The system operators in X-band, S-Band, L-band, D-Band as well as I-band. This is done by the use of banks of multi-band modules that work in conjunction with each other and the signal processing units. The WODEN system can vary its emissions not only in band used but can generate a broad blanket scan as well as generate pencil beams to focus in on targets.
The WODEN provides multi-mission capabilities, supporting both long range, exoatmospheric detection, tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles, as well as Area and Self Defence against air and surface threats.
For the Area Air Defence and Self Defence capability, the WODEN has increased sensitivity and clutter rejection capability is needed to detect, react to, and engage stressing Very Low Observable / Very Low Flyer (VLO/VLF) threats in the presence of heavy land, sea, and rain clutter.
This system provides high detection and excellent anti-jamming capabilities. The WODEN has a LPI (low probability of intercept) radar operating at I band surface search mode.
The WODEN D band radar provides very long range surveillance while the I band radar providing precise target tracking, a highly capable horizon search capability, and missile guidance using the Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination (ICWI) technique, thus allowing guidance of 32 semi-active radar homing missiles in flight simultaneously, including 16 in the terminal guidance phase. The combat control system is similar to the more common Aegis system in that detection, identification and engagement can be completely automatic.
The WODEN L band is a long-range search radar. It is a multibeam radar, which uses multiple antenna elements to simultaneously generate multiple beams by digital beamforming. The beams' vertical directions are controlled electronically, stabilization against the ships movements (e.g. roll) is also done electronically. Horizontally direction is controlled mechanically by rotating the antenna array. The radar is able to detect targets up to 480km away in Extended Long Range (ELR) Mode. WODEN radar is one of the most capable long-range radars in the world for detecting tactical targets, and provides options for low radar cross section ("stealth") target tracking.
Maximum detection ranges:
The NW Canadian Next Gen vessel series incorporates a holistic approach to sonar management, optimisable for open and littoral water operations. The IUSW incorporates two types of sonar arrays in one automated system. The high frequency sonar provides in-stride mine avoidance capabilities, while the medium frequency sonar optimises anti-submarine and torpedo defence operations. The use of sophisticated target algorithms better enables the vessel to engage enemy submarines and, at the same time, minimize crew headcount requirements. The sonar that will be required to achieve this goal includes the following:
The vessel also has an extensive set of IR and Optical sensor systems, doubly effective against surface and aerial threats. These systems are for the most part installed on the top of superstructure for greater range of view but are also mounted in conjunction with the individual weapons stations to provide additional search, tracking and targeting capabilities.
The primary system are the MSIS electro-optic surveillance and fire control system is fitted on the vessels, which contains an 8–12-micron thermal imager, TV camera and laser rangefinder. These units also contain a new third-generation thermal imager with increased sensitivity and resolution.
To work in conjunction with the MSIS systems, Sirius LR-IRST long-range dual-band IRST long-range infra-red surveillance and tracking sensors are also installed. The Sirius are installed on top of the mast tower, and provides additional horizon search capability against sea-skimming missiles, low flying aircraft, and small surface craft.
The Next Gen NW Canadian series of vessels makes use of a pair of Udav-1 sumarine defence systems, located underneath retracting panels on the fore and aft of the ship. The rocket system is theoretically capable of attacking nearby submarines but is intended to provide a multi layer defense against torpedoes and frogmen. Each system has a total of 50 missiles inc. reloads, resulting in 100 anti-submarine and torpedo kill weapons onboard each ship.
The system consists of an ammunition loading device, fire controls and ground support equipment for crew manning each of the weapon systems. In addition, hardlinks between the launchers and the superstructure exist so they can be operated from the safety of the control deck and the control station at the Udav itself. Aside from that, the Udav-1 consists of the following;
As a frontline combat ship, the vessel employs the following weaponry systems:
2x Advanced Gun System
The AGS is an advanced 155mm cannon, providing flexible, effective and sustainable firepower against a wide range of littoral and inland targets, as well as highly-advanced gunfire capabilities for anti-surface warfare. Two guns are located to the fore and aft of the ship's superstructure.
Drawing from a fully-automated, below-deck weapon handling and storage system for up to 750 rounds, the AGS will be capable of a maximum sustained firing rate of 10 rounds per minute and will fire at ranges of up to 83 nautical miles. By eliminating the need for personnel in the magazine, the AGS design supports the Navy's goals to reduce overall crew requirements.
The AGS integrated system control, or ISC, combines both gun control and fire control elements within the AGS architecture for seamless integration to the total ship computing environment. AGS design innovations also incorporate advanced thermal and erosion management technologies to ensure extended barrel life and to minimize infrared signature.
242x Vertical Lauch Cells
Equipped to handle a full range of missiles including the Tomahawk cruise missile, RIM-174 and RIM-161, the vessel uses a variety of techniques to ensure it's safety on the high seas. The VLS cells are located in large banks to the front of the vessel, and are re loadable at sea.
2x Quadruple tube Mk901 Light Torpedo Launcher and 2x Dual tube Mk801 Heavy Torpedo Launcher
Equipped in the port and starboard of the vessel in a dedicated midship section, the combined torpedo launchers. The left side of each launcher handles the Mk901 launcher for lightweight torpedoes such as the MU90 with the right side handling the Mk801 launching the F21 Heavyweight torpedo.
Two landing areas are located on the fantail aviation deck. Each spot is actually a lift that lowers down into beneath deck hanger. Water tight armoured sliding doors seal the lifts when descended into the hanger. Each of the landing areas is equipped with Recovery Assist, Secure and Traverse (RAST) system which allows deployment and recovery in high sea states. The just aft of the landing areas on the flight deck is a Helo In Flight Refueling (HIFR) point. This allows refuelling of a helicopter or VTOL aircraft while it is hovering overhead using a quick disconnect fitting which provides a manually operated emergency breakaway capability.
The hanger can accommodate normally two medium sized aircraft, generally an EC-725 Caracal helicopter and MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV in the New Hayesalian situation.
Furthermore, two spots are located at the stern to either side of the aircraft hanger for small boat handling. Each position has its own ramp, and the boat hangars' stern location meets high sea state requirements for boat operations. The NH Navy uses the Goldfish series of rigid hulled inflatable boats.